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M. Jackson Group Update – January 2018 – Keeping Resolutions

This month’s post is again from Ken Pope’s listserv, where he kindly provides daily summaries of current articles in the field.
The New York Times includes an article: “The Only Way to Keep Your Resolutions” by David DeSteno.
 
Here are some excerpts:
 
[begin excerpts]
 
It’s Day 1 on the road to a “new you.” But this road, as we all know, is difficult to follow. Humans are notoriously bad at resisting temptation, especially (as research confirms) if we’re busy, tired or stressed. 
 
By Jan. 8, some 25 percent of resolutions have fallen by the wayside. And by the time the year ends, fewer than 10 percent have been fully kept.
 
Unfortunately, the problem of New Year’s resolutions is, in a way, the problem of life itself.  Our tendency to be shortsighted — to value the pleasures of the present more than the satisfactions of the future — comes at a considerable cost.  Surely by now you’ve heard of the psychologist Walter Mischel’s famous marshmallow experiments, in which children who could resist the temptation to immediately eat one sweet would be rewarded with a second sweet about 15 minutes later.  Professor Mischel found that those who could wait — those who had self-control — were also the ones who had better academic and professional success years later.
 
Since then, study after study has linked self-control to achievement in a wide range of areas, including personal finance, healthful eating and exercise, and job performance. 
 
Put simply, those who can persevere toward their long-term goals in the face of temptation to do otherwise — those who have “grit” — are best positioned for success.
 
If what I’ve said so far sounds familiar, that’s because over the past 30 years, in response to these findings, something of a cottage industry has sprung up to tell us how to increase our self-control.  If you peruse the books on the best-seller lists, you’ll find variations on a theme: The best way to increase self-control is to use our willpower (and related mental capacities like executive function — that part of the mind that directs planning and reasoning) to ignore or suppress our craving for immediate pleasure.
 
But after a few decades of using this information, not much seems to have changed.  We’re still spending too much on impulse buys rather than saving for retirement, still continuing to indulge our sweet tooth rather than eating healthfully.  Why?
 
The answer, I contend, is that this view of self-control is wrong. In choosing to rely on rational analysis and willpower to stick to our goals, we’re disadvantaging ourselves. 
 
We’re using tools that aren’t only weak; they’re also potentially harmful. If using willpower to keep your nose to the grindstone feels like a struggle, that’s because it is. Your mind is fighting against itself. It’s trying to convince, cajole and, if that fails, suppress a desire for immediate pleasure. Given self-control’s importance for success, it seems as if evolution should have provided us with a tool for it that was less excruciating to use.
 
I believe it did; we’re just ignoring it. That tool is our social emotions. These are the emotions — things like gratitude and compassion — that support the positive aspects of social life.  For years I’ve been studying the effects of these emotions on decision-making and behavior, and I’ve found that unlike reason and willpower, they naturally incline us to be patient and persevere. When you are experiencing these emotions, self-control is no longer a battle, for they work not by squashing our desires for pleasure in the moment but by increasing how much we value the future.
 
We too often think about self-improvement and the pursuit of our goals in bracing, self-flagellating terms: I will do better, I will muscle through, I will wake up earlier. But it doesn’t need to be that way, and it shouldn’t: Self-control isn’t about feeling miserable.
 
The research on self-control shows that willpower, for all its benefits, wanes over time. As we try to make ourselves study, work, exercise or save money, the mental effort to keep focused and motivated increases until it seems too difficult to bear.
 
Worse, exerting willpower can take a psychological and physical toll. As recent work by the Northwestern University psychologist Greg Miller has shown, willing oneself to be “gritty” can be quite stressful. Studying about 300 teenagers from socially and economically disadvantaged backgrounds, Professor Miller found that those who were better at using self-control did have more success when it came to resisting temptations, but at a cost to their health. Their bodies suffered not only from increased stress responses, but also from premature aging of their immune cells.
 
<snip>
 
When people who are exceedingly focused and dedicated to using force of will to achieve their goals come up short, they report a hit to their well-being that is 120 percent greater than that reported by those who follow a less austere and stressful path.
 
<snip>
 
But to establish and maintain relationships, people would have had to be fair, honest, generous, diligent and loyal. They would have had to be perceived as good partners. In other words, they would have had to behave morally.
 
What underlies these moral traits is the ability to put something else ahead of your own immediate desires and interests — to exercise self-control. Working hard to keep up your end of a deal or helping another person by giving time, money, food or a shoulder to cry on all require a willingness to sacrifice some resources in the moment. In exchange, you reap the benefits of those strong relationships down the line.
 
When it comes to making such short-term sacrifices, most of us don’t rely on a cold, rational analysis of costs and benefits. We don’t normally calculate what’s to be gained by helping someone else. We just feel like we should. It’s our emotions — specifically, gratitude, compassion and an authentic sense of pride (not hubris) — that push us to behave in ways that show self-control.
 
I’m sure I’m not alone in saying that I’ve moved more couches and spent more time making gifts for friends than I thought possible when I felt gratitude toward them and wanted to show appreciation. Or that I’ve worked longer and harder on difficult tasks when I wanted to feel proud about my abilities and contributions to a team. Or that I’ve given more support to people when moved by compassion to do so.
 
More than a decade’s worth of research backs up this picture. Studies from my lab, for example, show that gratitude directly increases self-control. In a version of the marshmallow test adapted for adults, we had people take a few minutes to recall an event that made them feel grateful, neutral or happy. Next, we had them answer a series of questions of the form “Would you rather have $X now or $Y in Z days?” with Y always being bigger than X, and Z varying over weeks to months. From these questions, we could calculate how much people discounted the value of the future.
 
Those feeling neutral or happy were pretty impatient. They were willing to forgo receiving $100 in a year if we gave them $18 today. Those who were feeling gratitude, however, showed nearly double the self-control. They required at least $30 to forgo the later reward. In a similar vein, we followed people for three weeks, measuring their levels of daily gratitude, and found the same boost to self-control. Our research also shows that when we make people feel grateful, they’ll spend more time helping anyone who asks for assistance, they’ll make financial decisions that benefit partners equally (rather than ones that allow profit at a partner’s expense), and they’ll show loyalty to those who have helped them even at costs to themselves.
 
What my lab, and others, found when we looked at pride was similar. Making people feel proud — not arrogant, but proud of the skills they have — makes them more willing to wait for future rewards and more willing to take on leadership roles in groups and work longer and harder to help a team solve a difficult problem. Likewise, when we make people feel compassion, they’ll take on the burdens of others, spending more time and effort to help get others out of jams and ease their distress.
 
What these findings show is that pride, gratitude and compassion, whether we consciously realize it or not, reduce the human mind’s tendency to discount the value of the future. In so doing, they push us not only to cooperate with other people but also to help our own future selves. Feeling pride or compassion has been shown to increase perseverance on difficult tasks by over 30 percent. Likewise, gratitude and compassion have been tied to better academic performance, a greater willingness to exercise and eat healthily, and lower levels of consumerism, impulsivity and tobacco and alcohol use.
 
If using willpower causes stress, using these emotions actually heals: They slow heart rate, lower blood pressure and reduce feelings of anxiety and depression. 
 
By making us value the future more, they ease the way to patience and perseverance.
 
Perhaps most important, while these emotions enhance self-control, they also combat another problem of modern life: loneliness. 
 
From 1985 to 2004, the percentage of people who reported having at least one friend on whom they could rely and with whom they could discuss important matters dropped to 57 percent from 80 percent. Today, more than half of all Americans report feeling lonely, especially in their professional lives. But study after study has shown that those who are seen as grateful, warm and justifiably confident draw others to them. Because these emotions automatically make us less selfish, they help ensure we can form relationships with people who will be there to support us when we need it.
 
Cultivating the social emotions maximizes both our “résumé virtues” (those that underlie professional success) and our “eulogy virtues” (those for which we want to be remembered). In nudging the mind to be more patient and more selfless, they benefit everyone whom our decisions impact, including our own future selves. In short, they give us not only grit but also grace.
 
So as 2018 commences, take more time to cultivate these emotions. Reflect on what you’re grateful to have been given. Allow your mind to step into the shoes of those in need and feel for them. Take pride in the small achievements on the path to your goals. 
 
[end excerpts]
 
The article is online at:
 
Ken Pope
 
FIVE STEPS TO STRENGTHEN ETHICS IN ORGANIZATIONS AND INDIVIDUALS: 
EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES INFORMED BY RESEARCH AND HISTORY
Hardbound—Kindle—Nook—eBook—Google Book
 
AWARD ADDRESS: “THE CODE NOT TAKEN: THE PATH FROM GUILD ETHICS TO TORTURE AND OUR CONTINUING CHOICES”—
Canadian Psychology/psychologie Canadienne article free online at:
 
POPE & VASQUEZ:  ETHICS IN PSYCHOTHERAPY AND COUNSELING: A PRACTICAL GUIDE (5th EDITION)—John Wiley & Sons
Print—Kindle—Nook—eBook—Apple iBook—Google Book
 
“Scrooge was better than his word.  He did it all, and infinitely more….  He became as good a friend…and as good a person, as the good old city knew….  Some people laughed to see the alteration in him, but he let them laugh….  His own heart laughed: and that was quite enough for him.”
—Charles Dickens (1812-1870), whose tombstone in Westminster Abbey’s Poet’s Corner reads: “He was a sympathiser to the poor, the suffering, and the oppressed; and by his death, one of England’s greatest writers is lost to the world.”

M. Jackson Group Update – December 2017 – Coffee Consumption and Health

This month’s post is again from Ken Pope’s listserv, where he kindly provides daily summaries of current articles in the field.
It could be argued that it is somewhat self-serving to push articles that support my own lifestyle.  However, it really is striking how positive the data is on the use of coffee.  Also, this article is short, allowing time to get a coffee.
 
The article is as follows (excerpting and editing is by Ken Pope):
 
The British Medical Journal includes an article: “Coffee consumption and health: umbrella review of meta-analyses of multiple health outcomes.”
 
The authors are Robin Poole, specialty registrar in public health1, Oliver J Kennedy, graduate medical student1, Paul Roderick, professor of public health1, Jonathan A Fallowfield, NHS Research Scotland senior clinical fellow2, Peter C Hayes, professor of hepatology2, Julie Parkes, associate professor of public health1.
 
Here’s an excerpt from the Discussion section: ” We carried out this umbrella review to bring this existing evidence together and draw conclusions for the overall effects of coffee consumption on health. We identified 201 meta-analyses of observational research with 67 unique outcomes and 17 meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials with nine unique outcomes.”
 
Another excerpt: “The conclusion of benefit associated with coffee consumption was supported by significant associations with lower risk for the generic outcomes of all cause mortality,28 cardiovascular mortality,28 and total cancer.38 Consumption was associated with a lower risk of specific cancers, including prostate cancer,394490 endometrial cancer,394091 melanoma,4145 non-melanoma skin cancer,42 and liver cancer.43 Consumption also had beneficial associations with metabolic conditions including type 2 diabetes,2165 metabolic syndrome,26 gallstones,25 gout,67 and renal stones66 and for liver conditions including hepatic fibrosis,63 cirrhosis,963 cirrhosis mortality,9 and chronic liver disease combined.43 The beneficial associations between consumption and liver conditions stand out as consistently having the highest magnitude compared with other outcomes across exposure categories. Finally, there seems to be beneficial associations between coffee consumption and Parkinson’s disease,227677 depression,7879 and Alzheimer’s disease.80”
 
The article is online at:
 
Ken Pope
Follow me on Twitter: https://twitter.com/KenSPope
 
FIVE STEPS TO STRENGTHEN ETHICS IN ORGANIZATIONS AND INDIVIDUALS: 
EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES INFORMED BY RESEARCH AND HISTORY
Hardbound—Kindle—Nook—eBook—Google Book
 
AWARD ADDRESS: “THE CODE NOT TAKEN: THE PATH FROM GUILD ETHICS TO TORTURE AND OUR CONTINUING CHOICES”—
Canadian Psychology/psychologie Canadienne article free online at:
 
POPE & VASQUEZ:  ETHICS IN PSYCHOTHERAPY AND COUNSELING: A PRACTICAL GUIDE (5th EDITION)—John Wiley & Sons
Print—Kindle—Nook—eBook—Apple iBook—Google Book
 
“Do not believe that it is very much of an advance to do the unnecessary three times as fast.”
 –Peter Drucker (1909-2005)

M. Jackson Group Update – November 2017 – Sexual Harassment: Traits of Perpetrators

This month’s post is again from Ken Pope’s listserv, where he kindly provides daily summaries of current articles in the field.

The article is as follows (excerpting and editing is by Ken Pope):

Scientific American includes an article: “Sexual Harassment: 4 Psychological Traits of Perpetrators.”

The author is psychologist Ellen Hendriksen.

Here are some excerpts:

[begin excerpts]

In recent weeks, revelations about sexual harassment and its devastating effects have flooded the news and social media. But aside from a few legal-team-filtered statements, we don’t have an insight into the mindset of the accused harassers. So what are they thinking? How could they think this was a good idea? What makes someone prone to harass others?

<snip>

What specifies sexual harassment is that it is tied to power structures in employment and career advancement. The harasser holds the keys and creates a catch-22 for the victim: either submit and be exploited or resist and be punished.

It’s a no-win situation of power, control, and intimidation.

Therefore, sexual harassment can and does include demeaning comments, requests for sexual favors, unwanted sexual advances, but importantly, can also include sexual assault, which is any non-consensual or coerced sexual act, including sexual touching.

Harassment is also different than unwanted sexual attention, which consists of unwelcome come-ons and comments that are not primarily designed to demean and intimidate. Think terrible pick-up lines. Therefore, “Do you work at Subway? Because you just gave me a foot-long!” from a guy at the bar is unwanted sexual attention, but from your boss, it’s sexual harassment.

To be sure, it’s not always women as victims and men as perpetrators, even though that is the vast majority of the cases. In 2016, of the almost 13,000 charges of sexual harassment logged by the Equal Opportunity Employment Commission (widely regarded as the tip of the iceberg), 83% of them were filed by women.

And women who face sexual harassment by bosses and supervisors aren’t just rising Hollywood starlets or Yale-educated lawyers who once worked for Supreme Court nominees. They’re restaurant workers, clerks, flight attendants, students, health care workers, programmers, and any of millions of other everyday workers whose bosses control scheduling, raises, promotions, and references.

So who are these bosses? Who sexually harasses? I dug through the research and found four common characteristics of the (mostly) men who sexually harass (mostly) women. Here they are.

The 4 Characteristics of Sexual Harassers:

Characteristic #1: The Dark Triad

Characteristic #2: Moral disengagement

Characteristic #3: Working in a male-dominated field

Characteristic #4: Hostile attitudes towards women

Let’s explore each a little further.

Characteristic #1: The Dark Triad

<snip>

Actually, it’s three in one: narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism.

You’ve definitely heard of the first two: narcissism is a grandiose view of one’s own talents coupled with a lack of empathy and a deep need for admiration. Narcissists don’t care if you like them, but they do need you to think they’re powerful and impressive.

Narcissists might justify sexual harassment if they think they’ve been deprived of a sexual experience they “deserve.” They can’t fathom that someone just isn’t that into them.

Next, psychopathy revolves around two things: fearless dominance and aggressive impulsivity. In other words, psychopaths are bold, manipulative exploiters. They also have no empathy, but are good at mimicking it in order to exploit their victims.

<snip>

Finally, there’s Machiavellianism, named for the Italian Renaissance politician Niccolo Machiavelli. His masterwork, The Prince, describes an unscrupulous, deceptive political philosophy with an eye on long-term goals at any cost.

Put it all together and you essentially get a gleeful enthusiasm for exploitation, deception, and manipulation combined with a callous blindness to the feelings of others, all tied together with a bow of grandiosity. In other words, a perfect recipe for sexual harassment.

Indeed, in a study of almost 2,000 everyday community members, researchers found that—unsurprisingly—each of the three Dark Triad characteristics added to a tendency to sexually harass others.

Characteristic #2: Moral disengagement

<snip>

Moral disengagement is a slippery slope by which people justify their own corruption. It’s a cognitive process by which individuals create their own version of reality where moral principles don’t apply to them.

The mind is a tricky thing: often we choose our behavior to match our values, but sometimes, through moral disengagement, we change our values to justify our behavior.

Moral disengagement was first proposed by the psychologist Albert Bandura, who is often called the greatest living psychologist. His theory, as applied to sexual harassment, has several parts:

First comes moral justification, or portraying harassment as acceptable. Think Harvey Weinstein’s line, “I came of age in the ’60s and ’70s when all the rules about behavior and workplaces were different.”

Next is euphemistic labeling, or using sanitized substitutions for naming their behavior, like Bill Cosby’s characterization of his sexual assaults as “rendezvous.”

Third is displacement of responsibility, which attributes the harassment to outside forces (like Weinstein’s “that was the culture then.”)

There’s also advantageous comparison, which is the assertion that their behavior could have been worse, and distortion of consequences, where individuals minimize the harm wrought by their actions.

And finally, there are dehumanization and attribution of blame, which respectively eliminate concern for the victim and blame her for the incident. Bill O’Reilly did this when he commented that a woman who was raped and killed was “moronic” because she was wearing a miniskirt and a halter top, and that ”every predator in the world is gonna pick that up.” The end result? Harassers sleep well at night because, through moral disengagement, they rest assured that what they did was within the realm of normalcy, deserved, and didn’t cause any harm.

The mind is a tricky thing: often we choose our behavior to match our values, but sometimes, through moral disengagement, we change our values to justify our behavior. This is how sexual harassers can maintain their view of themselves as decent, even morally upstanding, people.

Characteristic #3: Working in a male-dominated field

Sexual harassment is well-documented to be more prevalent in traditionally masculine fields, like the military, the police, surgery, finance, and more recently, high tech and the upper echelons of the entertainment industry.

This goes back decades: a classic 1989 study of 100 female factory workers found that women who worked as machinists, a position dominated by men, reported being harassed significantly more often than women who worked on the assembly line, which was more gender-equal.

Characteristic #4: Hostile attitudes towards women

Even though psychology is a science, it’s not a totally objective field, in most part because research is done by people, and people are a product of their culture and the biases of a given place and time.

Interestingly, while researching this episode I found a study on sexual harassment from the early 1980s—almost a decade prior to Anita Hill’s testimony at Clarence Thomas’s confirmation hearings—that stated that most male sexual harassers had no idea that their advances were unwanted. The conclusion was that people who engaged in sexual harassment were simply clueless and lovelorn. But now we know better

A 2012 study out of the University of Bielefeld in Germany tested whether harassment was driven by what the researchers called a “short term mating orientation,” which is basically an academic euphemism for love ‘em and leave ‘em, or was driven by something called hostile sexism, and therefore served less as a way to get sex and more as a way to intimidate women.

The researchers asked 100 heterosexual male college students to chat online with “Julia,” an attractive 23-year-old woman. With each chat exchange, participants were asked to choose among three different pre-written messages to send to Julia.

The men were also told that this was a memory test, that Julia would later be quizzed on recalling the messages they sent to her, and that previous studies had found gender differences in memory performance, thus creating an atmosphere of competition.

For each message, the men chose among a joke, a personal comment, and a neutral statement. Now, some of the exchanges were carefully calibrated to include opportunities to harass. For example, in one combination, the choice included a sexist joke not specifically about Julia: “What’s the difference between a woman having her period and a terrorist? With a terrorist you can negotiate.” It also included a sexist remark directed specifically toward Julia—one of those terrible pickup lines: “You’re a sweet chocolate and I’ve got the filling for you.” Thankfully, there was also a neutral statement, simply: “You seem like a cheerful person.” Participants chose one of the messages to send, and then repeated this over 20 different trials.

The results found that the choice to send the pickup lines hung together with approving attitudes about short-term sexual encounters. The men who were more likely to send the bad pickup lines were also more likely to agree with statements like “sex without love is OK,” or “I would consider having sex with a stranger if it was safe and she was attractive.”

The guys who chose to send sexist jokes also scored highly on the short-term sexual attitudes questionnaire. But there was something else: they scored highly on a questionnaire of hostile sexism, endorsing items like, “Women are too easily offended,” and “The world would be a better place if women supported men more and criticized them less.”

In other words, sexual motives predicted unwanted sexual attention but hostile motives predicted both unwanted sexual attention and gender harassment. The researchers concluded that choosing to send the jokes wasn’t about sex at all; instead, it was about creating a disparaging, hostile climate for Julia in the context of a competitive atmosphere.

A good litmus test for whether comments are sexist or just a joke is to ask, “Would I say this to a man?” This is a good test for statements that might get defended by a harasser as “harmless fun,” or “What, I can’t even give a compliment?” For instance, a male supervisor wouldn’t tell a man he should smile more, comment on the attractiveness of his body, or say, “You don’t have to get all emotional about it.”

To sum it all up, harassment indicates a willingness to exploit and manipulate as a way to maintain or gain power.

It indicates callousness toward the victims and aims to “keep them in their place.”

Hopefully, with all the attention given to sexual harassment, more victims and more bystanders will speak up and speak out, and someday, the place for sexual harassment will be exactly nowhere.

[end excerpts]

The article is online at:

http://bit.ly/KenPopeReview4PerpTraits

Ken Pope

Follow me on Twitter: https://twitter.com/KenSPope

FIVE STEPS TO STRENGTHEN ETHICS IN ORGANIZATIONS AND INDIVIDUALS:

EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES INFORMED BY RESEARCH AND HISTORY

Hardbound—Kindle—Nook—eBook—Google Book

https://kspope.com/ethics5.php

AWARD ADDRESS: “THE CODE NOT TAKEN: THE PATH FROM GUILD ETHICS TO TORTURE AND OUR CONTINUING CHOICES”—

Canadian Psychology/psychologie Canadienne article free online at:

http://kspope.com/PsychologyEthics.php

POPE & VASQUEZ:  ETHICS IN PSYCHOTHERAPY AND COUNSELING: A PRACTICAL GUIDE (5th EDITION)—John Wiley & Sons

Print—Kindle—Nook—eBook—Apple iBook—Google Book

http://kspope.com/ethics/ethics.php

“It is very tempting to take the side of the perpetrator.  All the perpetrator asks is that the bystander do nothing.  He appeals to the universal desire to see, hear and speak no evil.  The victim, on the contrary, asks the bystander to share the burden of pain.  The victim demands action, engagement and remembering.”

–Judy Herman

M. Jackson Group Update – October 2017 – Animal Hoarding

This month’s post is taken from the British Psychological Society Research Digest and is as follows:
 
“Animal hoarding” may provide comfort to people who struggle to form relationships
2282775250_56e27bd253_b.jpg
Consistent with the cultural archetype of a “cat lady”, two thirds of the animal hoarders were women

By Alex Fradera

The latest version of psychiatry’s principal diagnostic manual (the DSM-V) defines Hoarding Disorder as a psychopathology where the collection of items significantly impacts the person’s functioning, as they find it difficult and indeed painful to discard the items, creating congestion within the home and encouraging poor hygiene and accidents. However not only objects, but also living things can be collected pathologically, popularly enshrined in the notion of a “cat lady”. According to the psychiatric manual, this is just a special case of hoarding. But a team of psychologists from the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul has investigated people who hoard animals, and in their new paper in Psychiatry Research they make the case that it ought to be considered a distinct illness.

Elisa Arrienti Ferreira and her colleagues investigated animal hoarding cases in the city of Porto Alegre, following up a survey conducted by the city’s Secretariat for Animal Rights. Of 75 potential cases, they managed to reach residents in 48 dwellings, and from those, found 33 who agreed to participate and fit the diagnostic criteria for the animal subtype of hoarding. The team arrived with vets to check the conditions of animals, they also surveyed the conditions of the residence and interviewed the animal hoarders about their lives.

The conditions in which these people lived might be hard to take in: there were a total of 1,357 animals – “composed of 915 dogs, 382 cats, and 50 ducks” – with an average of 41 per hoarder. Only 22 per cent ensured their animals were neutered, and the sanitary and health conditions were often very poor. The researchers also report that “dramatic situations such as violent fights for territory, extreme malnutrition, cannibalism, caged animals injured and untreated, were observed in most of the houses visited.”

Two-thirds of the hoarders were elderly, but they’d all begun accumulating animals earlier in their lives. Ferreira’s team speculate that it’s only later in life when the burden of animal collection becomes most apparent, as the number proliferate due to the individual’s reluctance to give animals away. Two-thirds of animal hoarders were women, and most lived alone, consistent with the sense that the animals provided companionship and comfort to people who otherwise struggle to form relationships.

There are a two main reasons why Ferreira’s team advocate for this to be considered as separate from standard hoarding. First, some of the technical definition of hoarding just seems off: take the concept of “congestion”, which makes sense in a house piled precariously high with magazines or wine bottles, but doesn’t really apply to mobile creatures. Second, the researchers note that their sample also seemed to show more self-awareness than is associated with object hoarding, many admitting to difficulties that resulted from their compulsion, and recognising that it took a toll on their quality of life.

If they see the problem, why don’t the animal hoarders do something about it? Well, it’s harder to rid yourself of an animal than trash, both logistically and emotionally. The presence of care-bonding with living things transforms the dynamic, and would suggest that the tactics appropriate for managing an item-hoarder may simply not apply in these cases. The researchers conclude that distinguishing animal hoarding as its own mental health condition can lead to investment into interventions that address a disorder that “causes serious damage to the environment, suffering for individuals, their families, and the animals.”

Animal Hoarding Disorder: A new psychopathology?

Image: Bansky cat ladies, via piX dust/Flickr

Alex Fradera (@alexfradera) is Staff Writer at BPS Research Digest

M. Jackson Group Update – September 2017 – Delaying or Preventing Dementia

This month’s post is again from Ken Pope’s listserv, where he kindly provides daily summaries of current articles in the field.
 
The article is as follows (excerpting and editing is by Ken Pope):
 
This morning’s Globe & Mail includes an article: “Dementia is not a runaway train. We can delay its onset” by Andre Picard.
 
Here are some excerpts:
 
[begin excerpts]
 
There are few things that aging baby boomers fear more than dementia, a condition that robs one of memory – and too often dignity – and leaves you dying little by little, piece by piece.
 
The numbers are frightful: An estimated 564,000 Canadians are currently living with dementia, and that figure is expected to rise to 937,000 within 15 years.
 
Globally, it is estimated that almost 50 million people are afflicted with dementia and that is forecast to rise to 131 million by 2050.
 
<snip>
 
Yet, there are little glimmers of hope – in particular, research showing that dementia is preventable, at least in part.
 
A study published in medical journal The Lancet shows one in three cases could be prevented or delayed if people took better care of their brains.
 
Based on a review of scientific literature and mathematical modelling, a panel of 24 global experts identified nine factors that increase the risk of dementia and how much those risks could be lowered if they were addressed.
  • Mid-life hearing loss: 9 per cent; 
  • Failing to complete secondary (high-school and above) education: 8 per cent; 
  • Smoking: 6 per cent; 
  • Failing to seek early treatment for depression: 4 per cent; 
  • Physical inactivity: 3 per cent; 
  • Social isolation: 2 per cent; 
  • High blood pressure: 2 per cent; 
  • Obesity: 1 per cent; 
  • Type 2 diabetes: 1 per cent. 
All told, the potential risk reduction adds up to 36 per cent – but, of course, health problems are easier to avoid in theory than in practice.
 
Still, some important lessons can be drawn from this list of modifiable risk factors. While things such as smoking and inactivity are commonly seen as lifestyle choices, they are largely symptoms of poor socioeconomic conditions.
 
That’s a reminder that, as Dr. Martin Prince of the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience at King’s College London writes in The Lancet: “Dementia selectively affects the old and frail, women and the socioeconomically and educationally disadvantaged.”
 
The research also drives home another key point: The brain changes at the root of dementia occur years before the onset of symptoms.
 
Dr. Antoine Hakim, emeritus professor of neurology at the University of Ottawa, stresses this point in his new book, Save Your Mind: Seven Rules To Avoid Dementia.
 
While the script for dementia is written early, perhaps as early as our teenage years, he writes, the risk of dementia is modifiable – up to and including when symptoms of cognitive decline begin – because of the plasticity of the brain.
 
Dementia is caused by the death of brain cells. But Dr. Hakim notes that most cases are not Alzheimer’s – characterized by tangles and plaques in the brain – but caused by vascular problems such as high blood pressure and stroke.
 
In other words, what’s good for the heart is good for the brain (and vice versa).
 
Of his seven golden rules for brain health and reducing dementia risk, Dr. Hakim’s No. 1 recommendation is to “save for a rainy day,” to grow the brain’s capacity and resiliency by exercising it like a muscle.
 
We can’t prevent dementia from killing people, but we can delay its onset. A one-year delay would translate into nine million fewer cases by 2050; a five-year delay would halve the prevalence of dementia globally in that same time period.
 
Want to stave off dementia?
 
Read. Write. Play music. Be physically active. Be socially engaged. Eat healthy food. Maintain a healthy weight. Sleep well. Don’t sit mindlessly in front of the TV.
 
Those simple counsels are the best tools we have in a world where there are no drugs or treatments that prevent dementia.
 
There are 100 billion neurons, trillions of contact points known as synapses and 600 kilometres of blood vessels in the brain, and “everything we do – and don’t do – affects the health of these cells and their connections,” Dr. Hakim writes.
 
Dementia is not a natural consequence of aging. Risk depends, in part, on genetics, and on the lifestyle “choices” we make. (And we have to be careful with that word because major factors such as poverty and education are rarely a choice.)
 
As The Lancet notes, “dementia is the greatest global challenge for health and social care in the 21st century.”
 
But it is not a runaway train. We have the ability prevent – or more realistically, delay – the disease. 
 
<snip>
 
We can save a lot of minds by using our heads.
 
[end excerpts]
 
The article is online at:
 
Ken Pope
Follow me on Twitter: https://twitter.com/KenSPope
 
FIVE STEPS TO STRENGTHEN ETHICS IN ORGANIZATIONS AND INDIVIDUALS: 
EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES INFORMED BY RESEARCH AND HISTORY
Hardbound—Kindle—Nook—eBook—Google Book
 
AWARD ADDRESS: “THE CODE NOT TAKEN: THE PATH FROM GUILD ETHICS TO TORTURE AND OUR CONTINUING CHOICES”—
Canadian Psychology/psychologie Canadienne article free online at:
 
POPE & VASQUEZ:  ETHICS IN PSYCHOTHERAPY AND COUNSELING: A PRACTICAL GUIDE (5th EDITION)—John Wiley & Sons
Print—Kindle—Nook—eBook—Apple iBook—Google Book
 
“A man of no convictions, no habits, no traditions…by the strangest freaks of chance, as it seems, rises above the seething parties…and without attaching himself to any one of them, advances to a prominent position.  The incompetence of his colleagues, the weakness and insignificance of his opponents, the frankness of the deception, and the dazzling and self-confident limitation of the man raise him….  His childish insolence and conceit gain him…glory. Innumerable so-called chance circumstances attend him everywhere. The disfavour into which he falls…turns to his advantage….  He was several times on the verge of destruction, and was every time saved in an unexpected fashion….  A whole series of outrages is perpetrated on the almost unarmed inhabitants.  And the men perpetrating these atrocities, and their leader most of all, persuade themselves that it is noble, it is glory, that it is like Cæsar and Alexander of Macedon, and that it is fine.  That ideal of glory and of greatness, consisting in esteeming nothing one does wrong, and glorying in every crime, and ascribing to it an incomprehensible, supernatural value—that ideal, destined to guide this man and those connected with him, is elaborated on a grand scale….  His ignoble [acts], abandoning his comrades in misfortune, does him good service….  At the moment when, completely intoxicated by the success of his crimes and ready for the part he has to play, he arrives…entirely without any plan….  He has no sort of plan; he is afraid of everything; but all parties clutch at him and insist on his support.  He alone—with the ideal of glory and greatness he has acquired…, with his frenzy of self-adoration, with his insolence in crime, and his frankness in mendacity—he alone can justify what has to be accomplished.”
—Leo Tolstoy in Chapter 3 of War and Peace (1869, Constance Garnett Translation)
 
Take care,
 
John

M. Jackson Group Update – August 2017 – Unexpected Findings

This month’s post is from the British Psychological Association Research Digest (https://digest.bps.org.uk/2014/12/01/10-of-the-most-counter-intuitive-psychology-findings-ever-published/).
 
The article is as follows:
 

10 of The Most Counter-Intuitive Psychology Findings Ever Published

By Christian Jarrett

One of the most annoying things you can say to a psychologist is: “Isn’t it all just common sense?”. No it’s not, as the list below demonstrates. But anyway, such a criticism of the field misses the point. Many findings in psychology can seem obvious after the fact, but we can’t know in advance which aspects of folk wisdom will stand up to scientific scrutiny. Striving for the objective truth through empirical testing – that’s what science is for, whether applied to molecules or minds.

That said, it’s always fun to share those findings that clash with received wisdom. So for your reading pleasure (and for the next time someone asks you the “common sense” question), here are 10 particularly counter-intuitive findings from the psychology archives. Please use comments to share your own favourites that we’ve missed.

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1. Self-help Mantras Can Do More Harm Than Good
If you’ve got low self-esteem, you might want to avoid uttering positive mantras such as “I’m a lovable person”. A 2009 study found that people lacking in self-belief who spoke this phrase to themselves didn’t feel any better afterwards. In fact they felt worse, possibly because the repeated utterance led them to generate contradictory thoughts automatically. On a related note, there’s evidence that positive fantasies can also backfire. It’s thought that visualising your aims can cultivate a relaxed mindset that leads you to overlook the hurdles between you and your goals.

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2. People Do Not Learn Better When Taught Via Their Preferred “Learning Style”
An incredibly popular idea, including among teachers, is that pupils learn better when they are taught information via their preferred modality, such as auditory, visual or by doing. In fact research has shown that people do not perform better when they are taught information via the modality that they say they prefer. A 2008 review of the learning styles concept put it like this: “there is no adequate evidence base to justify incorporating learning-styles assessments into general educational practice.” Want more? – here’s all you need to know about the learning styles myth in 2 minutes.

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3. Criminals Show Cooperation and Prosocial Behaviour in Economic Games
It’s easy to demonise people who have broken the law. However, recent studies using economic games that test fairness and cooperation show that this is short-sighted. Last year, researchers observed prisoners’ performance on a famous game known as the “prisoner’s dilemma” – the convicted criminals actually displayed more cooperation during the game than undergrad students. Similarly, another study published this year found that people with a criminal record displayed just as much “prosocial motivation” (i.e. they distributed money fairly) in the “dictator game” as those without such a record.

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4. Bottling Up Your Anger May Actually Be Good For You
Folk wisdom states that it’s better to relieve your anger by letting it out. In fact a tendency to lose one’s temper tends to go hand in hand with poorer healthAnother study found that hitting a punch-bag while thinking about the person who made you angry actually just makes you angrier. It’s a complicated area, and expressing anger constructively may sometimes be a good thing to do, but the old rule that’s it always better to let it all it out is definitely flawed.

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5. We Make Many Decisions Mindlessly
Unless we’re exhausted or intoxicated, we usually feel as though we are very much in control of our own choices and that we make them consciously and deliberately. This intuitive view is challenged by research on what’s known as “choice blindness”. In one study from 2005, participants picked out the face they found more attractive from successive pairs of photos. When researchers used sleight of hand to switch the chosen photo for the rejected photo, participants proceeded to justify their choice all the same, apparently ignorant of the switch. It was a similar story in 2010 when participants chose between different jams.

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6. Opposites Don’t Attract
When it comes to human relationships, the aphorism that “opposites attract” turns out to be wide of the mark. There are of course exceptions, but mountains of evidence highlights how we are drawn to friends and romantic partners who are similar to ourselves, whether in terms of physical appearance, their personality, interests, or beliefs – known as “homophily”. To take just two examples, a study from 2010 found that people found faces more attractive when (unbeknown to them) they’d been morphed with their own; and a paper from 2011 found that people tend to choose to sit near others who look like themselves.

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7. Wine Experts Don’t Know if They’re Smelling Red or White Wine
There is a vast literature on the limitations of expertise (for instance, political pundits are mostly useless at predicting electoral outcomes), but one of my favourite examples concerns people who study wine. A 2001 investigation showed that all it took to trick trainee oenologists into thinking a white wine smelt of red wine, was to dye it red. This research also challenges the intuitive belief that our senses are largely separate – in fact, perceptual experience derives from a blending of the senses, as shown for example via the McGurk Effect.

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8. It Helps to Have Narcissists on Your Team
We usually think of narcissists – people with inflated views of their own skills and self-importance – as individuals to avoid. However, a study published in 2010 found that their presence can have a beneficial effect in the context of creative team work. When groups of four people were challenged to come up with new ways for a company to improve, it was the groups with two narcissists in their ranks who performed the best. The researchers think the presence of some narcissists helps generate healthy in-group competition.

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9. Placebo Treatments Can Work Even When People Are Told It’s A Placebo
The amazing power of the placebo effect – the way that our beliefs about the action of an inert medicine can trigger substantial physiological effects – is itself, counter-intuitive. More surprising perhaps, is that the effect can still occur even when people know the medicine is inert. This was shown in a 2010 study involving people with IBS. “Our study suggests that openly described inert interventions when delivered with a plausible rationale can produce placebo responses,” the researchers said.

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10. Sometimes a Pregnant Woman’s Depression is Advantageous For Her Baby
There is lots of evidence showing the adverse effects of a stressful pregnancy. But dig deeper into this field and you find some surprising results. For instance, a 2012 study uncovered an association between depression in pregnancy and superior functioning in the child at ages three and six months. This was found in the specific context in which the mother’s depression continued into the postnatal period. The finding is consistent with the “predictive-adaptive response model”, which says that adversity in-utero can have adaptive advantages if adversity is also encountered after birth.

Please do share your own favourite counter-intuitive findings via comments!
_________________________________

–Further reading–
The 10 most controversial psychology studies ever published.

Christian Jarrett (@Psych_Writer) is Editor of BPS Research Digest

 

M. Jackson Group Update – July 2017 – Exercise is Awesome

This month’s post is again from Ken Pope’s listserv, where he kindly provides daily summaries of current articles in the field. He and others have provided a steady flow of studies showing quite remarkable outcomes from regular exercise. For those of us with family histories of medical conditions such as diabetes, a desire to be more nimble and happy in day-to-day life, and the aspiration to age well, there is really no ambiguity here. Regular exercise is an important part of the picture.
 
The article is as follows (excerpting and editing is by Ken Pope):
 
The Wall Street Journal includes an article: “Exercise Has a Cascade of Positive Effects, Study Finds” by Deborah Gage.
 
Here are some excerpts:
 
[begin excerpts]
 
Exercise has been shown to protect against diabetes, stroke and several other diseases and to improve our moods.
 
But does it also make us more likely to engage in other activities? Do people who exercise tend to have better social lives or achieve more of their goals?
 
The answer appears to be yes, according to a study that has been accepted for publication in the journal Personality and Individual Differences. Exercise not only makes us feel more positive, the study found, but it also increases the likelihood that we’ll do more positive things.
 
That supports the use of exercise to help treat people with depression, anxiety and other illnesses. It also suggests exercise could help healthy people improve their everyday lives.
 
<snip>
 
The results: On a given day, students who exercised also tended to participate in more social and achievement activities than on days when they didn’t exercise, the study found, and they engaged in activities that tended to matter to them more.
 
In addition, exercise on one day predicted positive social activity on the next day, but not achievement activity.
 
The researchers also found that positive social and achievement activities on one day didn’t predict exercise on the next day.
 
The results support an approach to treating depression called behavioral activation.
 
“When we become depressed or whatever it is we’re going through, we say to ourselves that we’ll get out when we feel better,” says Kevin Young, the study’s lead author, who is completing his doctorate in clinical psychology at George Mason University. 
 
“Unfortunately, what we also see is that we do not feel better until we get out.”
 
Mr. Young, who will be a clinical psychologist, adds, “We try and help someone start sprinkling activities again into their lives. That will result in improvement in mood, and [positive] emotion will follow.”
 
<snip>
 
Mr. Young says he’s now more inclined to have his patients use exercise to help them re-engage with activities they enjoy. Depression, he says, saps people’s energy and makes them fatigued.
 
“It’s torture,” he says. “Exercise is one method of intervention we have.”
 
[end excerpts]
 
The article is online at:
 
Ken Pope
 
AWARD ADDRESS: “THE CODE NOT TAKEN: THE PATH FROM GUILD ETHICS TO TORTURE AND OUR CONTINUING CHOICES”—
Canadian Psychology/psychologie Canadienne article free online at:
 
POPE & VASQUEZ:  ETHICS IN PSYCHOTHERAPY AND COUNSELING: A PRACTICAL GUIDE (5th EDITION)—John Wiley & Sons
Print—Kindle—Nook—eBook—Apple iBook—Google Book
 
“One of the few things I know…is this: spend it all, shoot it, play it, lose it, all, right away, every time.  Do not hoard what seems good for [later]; give it all, give it now….  Something more will arise for later….  Anything you do not give freely and abundantly becomes lost to you.  You open your safe and find ashes.”
—Annie Dillard

M. Jackson Group Update – June 2017 – Boosting Emotional Intelligence

This month’s post is again from Ken Pope’s listserv, where he kindly provides daily summaries of current articles in the field. The article is as follows (excerpting and editing is by Ken Pope):
 
*Harvard Business Review* includes an article: “How to Boost Your (and Others’) Emotional Intelligence.”

The authors are Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic and Michael Sanger.

Here’s the author note: “Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic is the CEO of Hogan Assessment Systems, a Professor of Business Psychology at University College London, and a faculty member at Columbia University. Find him on Twitter: @drtcp or at www.drtomascp.com. His next book, The Talent Delusion, will be published in February 2017.  Michael Sanger is an Industrial/Organizational Psychologist and Senior Strategist in the Global Alliance division of Hogan Assessment Systems.”

Here are some excerpts:

[begin excerpts]

Among the various core ingredients of talent and career success, few personal qualities have received more attention in the past decade than emotional intelligence (EQ), the ability to identify and manage your own and others’ emotions. Importantly, unlike most of the competencies that make it into the HR zeitgeist of buzzwords, EQ is no fad.

In fact, thousands of academic studies have demonstrated the predictive power of scientific EQ assessments vis-a-vis job performance, leadership potential, entrepreneurship, and employability. Moreover, the importance of EQ has been highlighted beyond work-related settings, as higher scores have been associated with relationship success, mental and physical health, and happiness.

<snip>

While Goleman and other popular writers argue that (unlike IQ) EQ is malleable and trainable, EQ is really just a combination of personality traits. Accordingly, it is not set in stone; it is largely heritable, shaped by childhood experiences, and fairly stable over time.

<snip>

Here are five critical steps for developing EQ:

Turn self-deception into self-awareness.

Personality, and thereby EQ, is composed of two parts: identity (how we see ourselves) and reputation (how others see us). For most people there is a disparity between identity and reputation that can cause them to ignore feedback and derail. Real self-awareness is about achieving a realistic view of one’s strengths and weaknesses and of how those strengths and weaknesses compare to others’. For instance, most people rate their own EQ highly, yet only a minority of those individuals will be rated as emotionally intelligent by others. Turning self-deception into self-awareness will not happen without accurate feedback, the kind that comes from data-based assessments such as a valid personality tests or 360-degree feedback surveys. Such tools are fundamental to help us uncover EQ-related blind spots, not least because other people are generally too polite to give us negative feedback.

Turn self-focus into other-focus.

Paying due attention to others is tantamount to career success. But for those with lower levels of EQ, it’s difficult to see things from others’ perspectives, especially when there is no clear right or wrong way forward.

<snip>

Be more rewarding to deal with.

People who are more employable and successful in their career tend to be seen as more rewarding to deal with. Rewarding people tend to be cooperative, friendly, trusting, and unselfish. Unrewarding individuals tend to be more guarded and critical; they are willing to speak their minds and disagree openly but can develop a reputation for being argumentative, pessimistic, and confrontational. Although this reputation helps enforce high standards, it’s only a matter of time before it erodes relationships and the support for initiatives that accompany them.

<snip>

Control your temper tantrums.

Passion and intense enthusiasm can easily cross the line to become moodiness and outright excitability when the pressure’s on. Nobody likes a crybaby. And in the business world, those who become particularly disappointed or discouraged when unanticipated issues arise are viewed as undeserving of a seat at the grown-ups’ table.

<snip>

Display humility, even if it’s fake.

Sometimes it can feel like you’re working on an island managed by six-year-olds. But if you’re the type of person who often thinks, “I’m surrounded by idiots,” then it’s likely that your self-assured behaviors are seen as being arrogant, forceful, and incapable of admitting mistakes. Climbing the organizational ladder requires an extraordinary degree of self-belief, which, up to a certain point, is seen as inspirational. However, the most-effective leaders are the ones who don’t seem to believe their own hype, for they come across as humble. Striking a healthy balance between assertiveness and modesty, demonstrating receptiveness to feedback and the ability to admit one’s mistakes, is one of the most difficult tasks to master….  To develop this component of EQ, it is sometimes necessary to fake confidence, and it’s even more important to fake humility. We live in a world that rewards people for hiding their insecurities, but the truth is that it is much more important to hide one’s arrogance. That means swallowing one’s pride, picking and choosing battles, and looking for opportunities to recognize others, even if you feel you are right and others are wrong.

<snip>

Much as with other coaching interventions, the goal here is not to change your personality but to replace counterproductive behaviors with more-adaptive actions — to build new habits that replace toxic tendencies and improve how others perceive you. This is why, when coaching works, it invalidates the results of a personality test: Your default predispositions are no longer evidenced in your behaviors.

[end excerpts]

The article is online at:
<http://bit.ly/KenPopeBoostingYourEmotionalIntelligence>

Ken Pope

AWARD ADDRESS ON TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGY ETHICS & THEIR CONSEQUENCES:
FREE FULL-TEXT OF *CANADIAN PSYCHOLOGY* ARTICLE:
http://kspope.com/PsychologyEthics.php

POPE & VASQUEZ:  ETHICS IN PSYCHOTHERAPY AND COUNSELING: A PRACTICAL GUIDE (FIFTH EDITION) — Wiley, 2016
21 Updated Chapters, 5 New Chapters, 2 Appendices on the Hoffman Report & APA’s Response
Print * Kindle * Nook * eBook * Apple iBook * Google Book
http://kspope.com/ethics/ethics.php

“year’s end, all
corners of this floating world,
swept”
–Matsuo Basho (1644-1694), who left his identity as a Samurai when he was 20 and became a wandering poet who helped develop the haiku

M. Jackson Group Update – May 2017 – Education and Conspiracy Theories

This month’s post is again from The Research Digest of the British Psychological association. The link for this article is:
 
 
The article is as follows:

 

By Christian Jarrett

In this era of “fake news” and rising populism, encountering conspiracy theories is becoming a daily phenomenon. Some people usually shrug them off – they find them too simplistic, biased or far-fetched – but others are taken in. And if a person believes one kind of conspiracy theory, they usually believe others.

Psychologists are very interested in why some people are more inclined to believe in conspiracy theories, especially since the consequences can be harmful: for example, by avoiding getting their kids vaccinated, believers in vaccination conspiracies can harm wider public health; in other cases, a belief in a conspiracy against one’s own ethnic or religious group can foment radicalism.

One of the main differences between conspiracy believers and nonbelievers that’s cropped up in multiple studies is that nonbelievers tend to be more highly educated. For a new study in Applied Cognitive Psychology, Jan-Willem Van Prooijen at VU Amsterdam has conducted two large surveys to try to dig into just what it is about being more educated that seems to inoculate against belief in conspiracy.

For the first survey, Van Prooijen recruited over 4000 readers of a popular science journal in the Netherlands, with an average age of 32. He asked them about their formal education level and their belief in various well-known conspiracy theories, such as that the moon landings were hoax; he tested their feelings of powerlessness; their subjective sense of their social class (they located their position on a social ladder); and their belief in simple solutions, such as that “most problems in society are easy to solve”.

The more highly educated a participant, the less likely they were to endorse the conspiracy theories. Importantly, several of the other measures were linked to education and contributed to the association between education and less belief in conspiracy: feeling less powerlessness (or more in control), feelings of higher social status, and being sceptical of simple solutions.

A second survey was similar, but this time Van Prooijen quizzed nearly 1000 participants, average age 50, selected to be representative of the wider Dutch population. Also, there were two phases: for the first, participants answered questions about their education level; feelings of power; subjective social class; belief in simple solutions; and they took some basic tests of their analytical thinking skills. Then two weeks later, the participants rated their belief in various conspiracy theories.

Once again, more education was associated with less belief in conspiracy theories, and this seemed to be explained in part by more educated participants feeling more in control, having less belief in simple solutions, and having stronger analytical skills. Subjective social class wasn’t relevant in this survey.

Taken together, Van Prooijen said the results suggest that “the relationship between education and belief in conspiracy theories cannot be reduced to a single psychological mechanism but is the product of the complex interplay of multiple psychological processes.”

The nature of his study means we can’t infer that education or the related factors he measured actually cause less belief in conspiracies. But it makes theoretical sense that they might be involved: for example, more education usually increases people’s sense of control over their lives (though there are exceptions, for instance among people from marginalized groups), while it is feelings of powerlessness that is one of the things that often attracts people to conspiracy theories.

Importantly, Van Prooijen said his findings help make sense of why education can contribute to “a less paranoid society” even when conspiracy theories are not explicitly challenged. “By teaching children analytic thinking skills along with the insight that societal problems often have no simple solutions, by stimulating a sense of control, and by promoting a sense that one is a valued member of society, education is likely to install the mental tools that are needed to approach far-fetched conspiracy theories with a healthy dose of skepticism.”

Why Education Predicts Decreased Belief in Conspiracy Theories

Image under licence via Gettyimages.co.uk

Christian Jarrett (@Psych_Writer) is Editor of BPS Research Digest

M. Jackson Group Update – April 2017 – Psychologists Treat GI Disorders

This month’s post is again from Ken Pope’s listserv, where he kindly provides daily summaries of current articles in the field. The article is as follows (excerpting and editing is by Ken Pope):
Loyola University issued the following news release:
 
[begin news release]
 
Health psychologists now treating functional heartburn, Crohn’s Disease, IBS and other GI disorders:
 
Health psychologists have begun treating gastrointestinal disorders that are strongly affected by stress, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), Crohn’s disease, functional heartburn, functional dyspepsia and ulcerative colitis.
 
Biochemical signaling between the brain and the GI tract, known as the brain-gut axis, can have a major effect on gastrointestinal disorders. The normal stress of everyday life can aggravate certain GI conditions. And in a vicious cycle, worrying about or dwelling on severe pain, constipation, diarrhea and other GI symptoms can make the symptoms worse, which in turn increases the stress, said Sarah Kinsinger, PhD, ABPP, a Loyola Medicine health psychologist who specializes in treating GI disorders.
 
Dr. Kinsinger offers behavioral treatments specifically designed to target brain-gut pathways. These treatments teach patients coping strategies to manage symptoms and reduce stress. She provides cognitive-behavioral therapy, an evidence-based treatment for irritable bowel syndrome. She also offers behavioral relaxation techniques, including diaphragmatic breathing (also known as belly breathing or deep breathing) and gut-directed hypnotherapy.
 
In many patients, psychological or behavioral interventions can be more effective than medications, Dr. Kinsinger said. She usually sees patients for five to seven sessions, and the treatments typically are covered by insurance.
 
“It is very gratifying to see patients get better after in some cases suffering for many years,” Dr. Kinsinger said. “Psychological and behavioral interventions do not cure their disease, but the treatments can provide patients with safe and effective coping mechanisms and greatly reduce the severity of their symptoms.”
 
For some conditions, such as IBS, psychological and behavioral treatments can be the primary treatments. For other conditions for which there are effective drugs, such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, psychological and behavioral treatments can be effective adjuncts to medications.
 
Dr. Kinsinger earned a PhD degree in clinical psychology from the University of Miami and completed a health psychology fellowship at the University of Illinois Medical Center at Chicago. She is board certified in clinical health psychology by the American Board of Professional Psychology.
 
[end news release]
 
Ken Pope
TWITTER: @KenSPope
 
POPE: AWARD ADDRESS: HOW PSYCHOLOGY’S SHARP SWITCH TO GUILD ETHICS AFFECTS US–
*Canadian Psychology/psychologie Canadienne* article free online at:
 
POPE & VASQUEZ:  ETHICS IN PSYCHOTHERAPY AND COUNSELING: A PRACTICAL GUIDE (5th EDITION) — John Wiley & Sons
21 Updated Chapters, 5 New Chapters, 2 Appendices on the Hoffman Report & APA’s Response
Print * Kindle * Nook * eBook * Apple iBook * Google Book
 
EDWARD R. MURROW:  “Who owns the patent on this vaccine?”
JONAS SALK [who developed an effective vaccine during the polio epidemic, which each year was paralyzing or killing more than 500,000 people around the world during the1940s & 1950s]:  “Well, the people, I would say.  There is no patent.  Could you patent the sun?”
–CBS Television interview, on See It Now (12 April 1955)